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Saturday, November 28, 2020 | History

2 edition of Vortices in Type-II superconductors. found in the catalog.

Vortices in Type-II superconductors.

Matthew Jesse William Dodgson

Vortices in Type-II superconductors.

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  • 36 Currently reading

Published by University of Manchester in Manchester .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D.), - University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy.

ContributionsUniversity of Manchester. Department of Physics and Astronomy.
The Physical Object
Pagination172p.
Number of Pages172
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16564283M


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Vortices in Type-II superconductors. by Matthew Jesse William Dodgson Download PDF EPUB FB2

• Extreme type-II superconductor: 1 Note that the type-II superconductors generally have large dimensionless factor, which does not depend on temperature, at least to this order. Vortices of Type-II Superconductors and London Model For a type-II superconductor, there is a lower critical Hc1 and a upper critical field Hc2.

Vortices in a nm-thick YBCO film imaged by scanning SQUID microscopy. In physics, a quantum vortex represents a quantized flux circulation of some physical quantity. In most cases quantum vortices are a type of topological defect exhibited in superfluids and existence of quantum vortices was first predicted by Lars Onsager in in connection with superfluid helium.

Lecture Type II Superconductors Outline 1. A Superconducting Vortex 2. Vortex Fields and Currents 3. General Thermodynamic Concepts • First and Second Law • Entropy • Gibbs Free Energy (and co-energy) 4.

Equilibrium Phase diagrams 5. Critical Fields Octo This book provides expert coverage of modern and novel aspects of the study of vortex matter, dynamics, and pinning in nanostructured and multi-component superconductors.

Vortex matter in superconducting materials is a field of enormous beauty and intellectual challenge, which began with the theoretical prediction of vortices by A. Abrikosov. Superconductivity is a set of physical properties observed in certain materials where electrical resistance vanishes and magnetic flux fields are expelled from the material.

Any material exhibiting these properties is a an ordinary metallic conductor, whose resistance decreases gradually as its temperature is lowered even down to near absolute zero, a superconductor has a. In superconductivity, an Abrikosov vortex (also called a fluxon) is a vortex of supercurrent in a type-II superconductor theoretically predicted by Alexei Abrikosov in Abrikosov vortices occur generically in the Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity, and can be explicitly demonstrated as solutions to that theory in a general mathematical setting, viz.

as vortices in complex line. Theory of Fluctuations in Superconductors is a thorough and timely book aimed at both theorists and experimentalists interested in current topics in superconductivity.

There are many vast topics, including flux-lattice melting or unconventional (p - or d -wave) superconductivity, and experimental results, that the authors only briefly mention.

The high-performance superconductors described here are so-called type-II superconductors, meaning that a sufficiently high magnetic field penetrates inside them via the formation of vortices (Abrikosov ). Vortices can be viewed as non-superconducting cores that are surrounded by circulating persistent superconducting currents, see figure 1(a).

The occurrence of vortices in type-II superconductors was predicted first by Abrikosov when he discovered a two-dimensional (2D) periodic solution of the Ginzburg–Landau (GL) equations. Abrikosov correctly interpreted this solution as a periodic arrangement of.

Figure Vortices in Type-II superconductors. book. (a) Depicts magnetic flux tubes, i.e. vortices in a superconductor. (b) Depicts states in an ideal type-II superconductor.

Ginzburg{Landau vortices A satisfactory theoretical explanation of superconductivity eluded physicists from the time of its discovery () until when Bardeen, Cooper and Shrie er (BCS). Vortices in superconductors The superconducting state of some material is characterized by a vanishing (DC-) resistivity ρ(T) and by the complete repulsion of magnetic flux, even if a magnetic field is applied before a superconductor is cooled below the critical temperature T c.

type II superconductors where the flux penetrates the superconductor in the form of Abrikosov vortices (see Fig. Here, circulating currents Vortices in Type-II superconductors.

book around an axis x B 0 0 L (a) (b) ξ λ Ψ Fig. A (a) Schematic drawing of Abrikosov vortices pene-trating a type II superconductor. Solid lines symbolize magnetic. The motion of vortices in an anisotropic superconductor is considered. For a system of well-separated vortices, each vortex is found to obey a law of motion analogous to the local induction approximation, in which velocity of the vortex depends upon the local curvature and orientation.

A system of closely packed vortices is then considered, and a mean field model is formulated in which the. Vortex Dynamics in Type II Superconductors Dachuan Lu (Kuang Yaming Honors School, Nanjing University) (Dated: April 6, ) Time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation is solved for type II superconductors numerically, and the dynamics of entering vortices, geometric defects and pinning e ects have been investigated.

The distributions of the vortices (the snapshots of cooper-pair density |ψ| 2 in the dynamics process) at the temperature T = T c 1 are shown in Fig.

3 at the time t =and τ GL, this case, the flux vortices prefer to penetrate into the superconductor from the inner surface when the external magnetic field gets to the threshold value. The methods of formal asymptotics are used to examine the behaviour of a system of curvilinear vortices in a type II superconductor as the thickness of the vortex cores tends to zero.

The vortices then appear as singularities in the field equation and are analagous to line vortices in inviscid hydrodynamics.

When magnetic fields reach a certain strength, they cause a superconductor to lose its superconductivity. But there is a type of superconductor—known as “ Type II ”—which is better at surviving in relatively high magnetic fields.

In these superconductors, magnetic fields create tiny whirlpools or “ vortices.” Superconducting current. Type I and Type II superconductors are mentioned briefly at the end of the chapter.

The chapter also discusses the critical magnetic field slope and the temperature dependencies of the superconducting state. Even though superconductors have, by nature, zero dc resistance, it is still of interest to see how close the superconductors come to zero.

In type II superconductors with magnetic field penetrating in form of quantized flux (vortices) 16, the reduced inelastic relaxation time could suppress or modify some signatures of MSSC. A renewed interest in the type II SCs is related with the proposal of holographic superconductors (HS) 17, mapping solutions of astrophysics problems to.

Vortices in Unconventional Superconductors and Superfluids (Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences Book ) - Kindle edition by Huebener, R.P., Schopohl, N., Volovik, G.E. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.

Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Vortices in Unconventional Superconductors and Superfluids Manufacturer: Springer. Vortices in Unconventional Superconductors and Superfluids (Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences) Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed.

Edition by R. Huebener (Editor), N. Schopohl (Series Editor), G. Volovik (Series Editor) & ISBN ISBN general classi cation scheme of magnetic vortices in di erent phases of matter, that can hopefully be applied to other physical systems.

A natural starting point of our discussion lies in the vortices in Type-II superconductors. Quite generally, it is easy to see that the vortex should carry a nonvanishing orbital angular momentum. $\begingroup$ @petersmith Type II superconductor have 3 types of vortices, as far as i understand it, vortices are structural defects, but how this defects so special in superconductor.

$\endgroup$ – Raldenors Nov 26 '15 at   Vortices arrange randomly due to thermal fluctuation at F > 0. Thermal fluctuation does not contribute to the net flow of vortices, so the mean velocity is roughly independent of temperature.

Summary. We have simulated the dynamics of a two-dimensional vortex system in type-II superconductors with periodic square columnar pins. TYPE II SUPERCONDUCTOR MAGNETIC VORTICES CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT FLOW through a superconductor (blue rectangular bo x) can be disrupt - ed by vortices (cylinders).

Each vortex consists of a ring of circulating current in - duced by an external magnetic Þeld (not shown). The applied current adds to the. problems in the vortex physics of type-II superconductors. Not only it is important for the assessment of the current-carrying capabilities relevant for practical applications, but knowing the “true” F Ö is needed to understand microscopic mechanisms of vortex pinning.

What. In previous chapters, we observed that the free energy of an interface between normal and superconducting regions was negative Γ ns Author: Laurent-Patrick Lévy.

To date, no type II superconductors have achieved a 𝐽 greater than 25 - 30% of their theoretical maximum, 𝐽. Moreover, 𝐽 decreases under the influence of magnetic fields due to dissipation caused by the motion of magnetic vortices. However, it is predicted that 𝐽 may be greatly.

An overview is given of the new theories and experiments on the phase diagram of type II superconductors, which in recent years have progressed from the Abrikosov mean field theory to the "vortex matter" picture. We then detail some theoretical tools which allow to describe the melting of the vortex lattice, the collective pinning and creep theory, and the Bragg glass theory.

With the high-temperature superconductors a qualitatively new regime in the phenomenology of type-II superconductivity can be accessed. The key elements governing the statistical mechanics and the. Hiroshi Fujioka, in Handbook of Crystal Growth: Thin Films and Epitaxy (Second Edition), High-Temperature Superconductors.

High-temperature superconductor films have been the most successful applications for PLD and are currently used in mass-produced devices at the industrial level [1,2,52].Unlike CVD or MBE, the PLD growth of high-temperature superconducting thin films has two.

Self-organization of vortices in type-II superconductors during magnetic relaxation. January ; Physical Review B 59(22) (SOC) to the process of magnetic relaxation in type-II. Summary. This chapter addresses the following topics: The history of the discovery of Type II superconductors and their usual magnetic properties: two critical fields and the mixed state in between, with a partial penetration of the magnetic field in the form of a lattice of quantum vortices.

Type II Superconductors and Vortices from the s to the s. Pages Abrikosov, A. *immediately available upon purchase as print book shipments may be delayed due to the COVID crisis. ebook access is temporary and does not include ownership of the ebook. Only valid for books with an ebook version.

The critical-state model proposed by Bean [] represents the foundational framework which has been used to predict successfully most macroscopic observables of hard type-II superconductors in the mixed simple assumptions that (a) there exists an upper limit to the current density that can flow through the superconductor, called the critical current density, J C, and (b) any.

In type II superconductors, vortices with N circulation quanta carry a magnetic flux FN 5 (Ny2)F0; the extra factor 1y2 comes from the Cooper pairing nature of superconductors.

According to the London equations, screening of the electric current far from the vortex leads to. The so-called flux vortices often arrange themselves into regular periodic structures.

They can be visualised by covering the surface with a coagulation of very fine ferromagnetic particles. The animation below shows a micrograph taken of a type II superconductor in the mixed state and how it arises from the partial penetration of flux.

The vortex gel might often occur in type-II superconductors at low magnetic fields. Such vortex distributions should allow to considerably simplify control over vortex positions and manipulation of quantum vortex states. DOI: /PhysRevResearch I. INTRODUCTION Quantized vortices in superconductors arrange spatially in.

In type-II materials, there are two critical fields, Hc1(T) and Hc2(T). For H Hc2, we have uniform flux penetration and the system is normal. For Hc1 vortices of flux φ L penetrate the system (see Fig.

Chapter 11 demonstrates how the GL model can be extended to nonstationary problems. A considerable part of the book is devoted to the vortex dynamics, which treats behaviour of type II superconductors when they carry electric currents in presence of a magnetic field.

Chapters 12 to 15 deal with the dynamics of vortices. If a superconductor is very thin, or if the superconductor is a type-II superconductor, it costs the superconductor less energy to allow some of the magnetic field to penetrate the superconductor.

That's why the flux vortices form, in regions where the magnetic field is able to, in effect, "slip through" the superconductor.